STUDY LINKS HIGH TRAFFIC STREETS
TO CHILDHOOD CANCERS
The results of a new study conducted in the rapidly expanding Denver metropolitan area indicates children living near heavilytraveled streets or highways are at significantly greater risk of developing cancer, including childhood leukemia.
The researchers found a correlation between high volumes of traffic on streets or highways near homes where incidences ofchildhood cancer previously had been documented. The study was authored by Robert Pearson of Denver’s RadianInternational, University of Colorado at Boulder electrical engineering Professor Howard Wachtel and Kristie Ebi of theElectric Power Research Institute in Palo Alto.
The study was published in the February 2000 issue of the Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association.
"What we are seeing is that children who live near high-traffic streets have an increased risk for childhood cancer," saidPearson, also an adjunct professor of urban planning at CU-Denver. "What we have not yet been able to pin down is thespecific cause-and-effect relationship."
The new study showed that homes adjacent to street corridors carrying 20,000 or more vehicles per day had roughly a six-foldincrease in risk for children contracting cancer, including childhood leukemia, said Wachtel.
Motor vehicles are a significant source of air-pollution emissions, including benzene and other organic compounds, saidPearson. Occupational exposure to elevated concentrations of benzene is a known cause of leukemia in adults.
A 1989 Study by University of North Carolina researchers David Savitz and Lisa Feingold linked heavily trafficked Denverstreets to confirmed cases of childhood cancers on the specific streets, said Wachtel. But the effect of heavy traffic on nearbythoroughfares was not taken into account, leaving the study open to criticism.
But the new study takes into account the neighboring traffic in several ways, including adjustments for the distance between thehighest-traffic streets and homes up to 1,500 feet away. This allowed the researchers to consider the typical pattern ofdispersion and decay of drifting vehicle emissions as they migrated from the traffic corridors outward to homes under study.
For example, a house used as a control in the study or a house with a confirmed case of childhood cancer might be located in aquiet cul-de-sac. But if it also is only a few hundred feet from an interstate highway, the volume of highway traffic weighedheavily in assessing the traffic-exhaust exposure for that dwelling, Wachtel said.
The authors also speculated that children living near heavily trafficked streets could be exposed to benzene and othercarcinogens via inhalation or exposure to soil where vehicle-emission chemicals may be deposited.
A study in Stockholm several years ago in which researchers looked at nitrogen dioxide pollution from vehicles and cancerrates of nearby residents found a correlation, although not as strong as the one in the new Denver study, said Pearson. Anotherstudy in Great Britain showed a correlation between childhood cancer and the proximity of children’s homes to steel mills,factories and high-traffic streets, he said.
Savitz, a former professor at the CU Health Sciences Center, had previously worked with Wachtel, CU-Boulder ProfessorFrank Barnes and several other researchers on a 1988 study that linked Denver childhood cancers to high current-capacitypower lines common along high-density traffic corridors. But that research and subsequent studies around the world failed topinpoint a specific cause-and-effect relationship between the electromagnetic fields generated by the power lines and cancer.
For their study, Pearson, Wachtel and Ebi obtained street-traffic densities for 1979 and 1990 from the Colorado Departmentof Transportation and the Denver Regional Council of Governments. The years 1979 and 1990 were closest to the period ofexposure addressed in the 1988 power line-cancer study from which the specific cases and locations of childhood cancer weredrawn for the new study.
Interestingly, children living in homes close to both high-traffic corridors and high current-capacity power lines show moreelevated risks for cancer than children living only in high-density traffic areas, Wachtel said.
"It’s possible that benzene and other organic compounds from vehicle exhaust may initiate cancer in children while EMF’s mayact to promote such cancers," he said. "We need to design some well thought-out follow-up studies, since there is still a lot wedon’t understand about the associations involving cancer, high-density traffic and EMFs."
Written by: University of Colorado at Boulder
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